The Civil War collective memory was created by the generation who lived through the war and was passed on from generation to generation. Collective memory is more about emotional and political growth rather than accuracy with regards to historical events. Four dominant collective memories were supported after the end of the civil war: The ‘Lost Cause’, the ‘Union’, the ‘Emancipation’, and the ‘Reconciliation memories. The ‘Lost Cause’ memory “justified secession on constitutional grounds…and insisted that defeat in the face of impossible odds entailed no loss of honor” (Gallagher, A Contested Historical Landscape, 17). The ‘Lost Cause’ writers lionized confederate soldiers, including General R.E. Lee as “stalwart heroes engaged in a valiant but hopeless struggle” (22) hoping to provide future generations with a “correct narrative of the war” (17). The ‘Union’ collective memory sought to leave “Americans infused with a sense of national exceptionalism” (25). This collective memory articulated that the sole reason for the war was reunion and that it was the greatest outcome of the war (26). The ‘Emancipation’ memory focused on the importance of ending slavery and how “the emancipation of more than four million slaves to be the conflict’s most important outcome” (29). The ‘Emancipation’ memory saw the liberation of the four million slaves as “an outcome that…preceded final restoration of the union” and that also provided for “a higher civilization” (30-31). The ‘Reconciliation’ memory sought to mute the divisive subjects of slavery and “avoided value judgments about the righteousness of either cause, and celebrated the valor and pluck of white soldiers in both Union and Confederate amries” (33). Writers of this memory often pointed towards the peaceful interactions between General Grant and General Lee at the surrender at Appomattox, “as the beginning of a healing process that reminded all Americans of their shared history and traditions” (33).
Over the course of this semester, I have found that a few things conflicted with things I have learned previously. Some themes of ‘The Lost Cause’ memory were present in my middle school and possibly some of my high school education without realizing it until taking Dr. Meier’s American Civil War course. When learning about the civil war at a young age you learn that it was in fact fought over slavery and the union fought to end slavery. However, over the course of middle school and high school I do remember mentioning of the protection of states’ rights being the reason for secession and the resulting civil war. For both these cases I know all too well to be untrue.
While the war evolved with a military goal of emancipation to attack the South’s economic constructs, it was not fought to end slavery, it was fought to put down the rebelling states. And while it was not fought for or to end slavery the southern states seceded because of slavery, and southern states felt its domestic institution of slavery was being encroached upon. While I do not plan to teach about the American Civil War, if I had to there are certain themes even in a middle school or high school atmosphere, I would put certain emphasis on. First and foremost being the myths of ‘The Lost Cause’ memory with regards to the south being doomed to lose, the war being a war to end slavery, and what states’ rights role truly was in secession.
Jefferson Davis, the former President of the Confederacy during the American Civil War, evolved in many aspects during and after the war. One area in which Jefferson Davis evolved most was in regards to a slave solely being deemed property and being treated as such. Jefferson Davis attested in August of 1848 that “Slaves being recognized as property by the Constitution of the United States,” were not to be “discriminate[d] between that and any other species of property” (Cooper, Jefferson Davis 69-71). He explains that the fore-fathers fought to protect institutions such as slavery and he would not give up something his father had bled for, and if provoked, civil war would ensue (Cooper, 76).
In 1864, the many casualties due to General Grant’s Overland campaign, and the fall of strategic footholds in the south such as Atlanta, Mobile Bay, and the Shenandoah valley proved devastation on morale and enlistment. In response to this and the loss of more than fifty percent of General Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia, Jefferson Davis called for the “employment of slaves for service with the army” (Cooper, 352). While the slaves were to serve in support roles, Jefferson Davis made a very clear statement. He states in November of 1864, that while slaves were “viewed merely as property…The slave, however, bears another relation to the state – that of a person” (Cooper, 352). After years of fighting the civil war and delving through periods from expectations of victory, to attempts at negotiating peace; Jefferson Davis’ beliefs evolved on the issue of a slave’s place in society and whether they were solely property.